What is diabetes insipidus
Diabetes insipidus is a kind of disorder characterised by the inability of the body to regulate the water levels and interrupted water levels in the body. Disrupted water levels leads towards extreme thirst and extreme and large amount of urination, with urge towards urination frequently. When diabetes insipidus is left undiagnosed and untreated, it results in severe dehydration and reduction in the level of blood pressure and may also lead towards death. Diabetes insipidus is different from diabetes, where the symptoms of increased thirst and urination are found to be common.
Types of diabetes insipidus
There are different types of diabetes insipidus developed with different causes. They are as under:
• Cranial diabetes insipidus or Neurogenic diabetes insipidus
• Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus
• Dipsogenic diabetes insipidus
• Gestational diabetes insipidus
Let us each type of diabetes insipidus briefly.
Cranial diabetes insipidus:
It is one of the most common types of diabetes insipidus, which accounts for more than 80% of people diagnosed with this condition. Cranial diabetes insipidus is developed due to insufficient quantity of ADH – Anti-Diuretic Hormones, in the body for regulating the urine and urination intervals. Lack of ADH quantity is occurred due to damaged pituitary gland as well as hypothalamus. Cranial diabetes insipidus is caused due to surgery, head injury, trauma, inflammation and genetic conditions. Unfortunately, in many cases the exact causes of cranial diabetes insipidus is not known.
This condition is referred by several terms such as central diabetes insipidus, neurological diabetes insipidus, pituitary diabetes insipidus, hypothalamic diabetes insipidus, and neuro-hypophyseal diabetes insipidus. Cranial diabetes insipidus can be diagnosed by the symptoms of excessive and extreme urination and thirst. It is quite difficult to prevent the condition. However, the risk of developing cranial diabetes insipidus can be reduced to a great extent by careful treatment, because it is a lifelong and permanent condition. Desmopression is prescribed to maintain fluid balance in the body.
Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus:
Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus is similar to neurogenic diabetes insipidus except the fact that the condition is caused by inability of kidney tubules to use ADH. ADH is responsible for instructing the kidneys towards making the concentrated urine. Defects and damages in the kidney tubules result towards excessive quantity of water in the urine, where the urine is diluted. Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus is a rare type of diabetes insipidus. It is caused due to low level of potassium, high level of calcium, reaction to certain drugs like lithium and blockages in the urinary tract. Sometimes, Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus is also caused due to genetic factors as congenital diabetes insipidus. If the pregnant women are diagnosed with gestational diabetes insipidus, the risk of developing nephrogenic diabetes insipidus is more in babies. The condition can be controlled by eliminating the causes of the diabetes insipidus, except when it is caused as an inherited diabetes insipidus.
Dipsogenic diabetes insipidus
Dipsogenic diabetes insipidus is one of the unique forms of diabetes insipidus, which is characterised by damages in the thirst mechanism. The damages lead towards extreme thirst and abnormal consumption of liquids, resulting towards abnormal urination.
Gestational diabetes insipidus:
Gestational diabetes insipidus is a rare form of diabetes insipidus, which is developed only by pregnant women. Pregnant women develop this condition due to destruction of ADH hormone by an enzyme produced by placenta in the body. Symptoms of gestational diabetes insipidus are found to be same as found in other types of diabetes insipidus. To retain fluid and control dehydration, pregnant women with gestational diabetes are generally treated with desmopressin. Unfortunately, there are some pregnant women, have an abnormal reaction to desmopressin, where in such cases it should be avoided. This condition is quite severe in pregnant women, which can lead towards several complications include fatty liver, preeclampsia, etc.