Of all human infectious diseases, smallpox is believed to have resulted in several deaths of people throughout history than any other pathogen. The causing agent of smallpox, the smallpox virus eradicated from the natural existence in 1977 through a global vaccination effort administered by the World Health Organization (WHO).
Mayor symptoms in small pox
- The incubation period is 12-14 days (range 7-17 days)
- characteristic rash comes 2-3 days after prodrome of nonspecific flu-like symptoms (fever and headache)
- Maculopapular rash begins in the lining of the mouth and pharynx, face, hands, forearms, and spreads to the legs and the central trunk, the lesions are more common in the face and extremities as the stem.
- Lesions progress synchronously on any body part macules papules to vesicles, pustules with crust
Treatment of smallpox
- Palliative care is the cornerstone of treatment
- The in vitro antiviral activity against poxviruses has been shown with adefovir, cidofovir, adefovir and ribavirin.
Vaccine for smallpox
The vaccine against smallpox helps the body develop immunity to smallpox. The vaccine is made from a vaccinia virus, but is a virus “pox” type related to smallpox. The vaccine against smallpox virus contains live vaccinia undead like many other vaccines. For this reason, the vaccination site be handled carefully to avoid spreading the virus. In addition, the vaccine have side effects (see “smallpox vaccine safety” in this paper.) Vaccine does not contain smallpox virus and can not give you smallpox.
The vaccine has been used to protect people against disease vaccine against smallpox was the first scientifically documented, developed by the English physician, Dr. Edward Jenner. Mr. Jenner observed that milk seems to have an abnormally high resistance against smallpox infection. The correlation that the assumption was that these dairies, which were often exposed to damage from vaccinia, which has developed resistance to copper, due to exposure to the smallpox vaccine before. Because copper causes only mild symptoms in humans, it seemed a good way to protect people against smallpox more deadly. Therefore, in an attempt completely unethical today’s standards, Dr. Jenner used cowpox pus from a milkmaid, Sarah Nelms, for vaccination in the arms of a boy, James Phipps, who was not exposed to the disease. After a few months, used Dr. Jenner could arm of a victim of smallpox to inoculate young James. For the relief of all concerned, James has not been infected with smallpox. It seemed he had become immune to vaccinia exposure earlier. The use of the Latin word for cow, “Vacca” Jenner called it as “vaccination”. Thus began the possible use of vaccines worldwide.
Why vaccination is most important if smallpox is used as biological weapon
- The vaccine against smallpox is necessary for all people at the time of the bioterrorist attack or anyone with close personal contact with a case of smallpox
- The vaccine is most effective if given within the period of 3 days of exposure
- Ideally, all exposed persons will be strictly quarantined for 17 days after last contact with a case of smallpox
Reasons for today’s threats
All such information is for a history lesson if there are fears that smallpox could be released into the environment as a biological weapon. This fear arises because there are fears that the two official stocks of smallpox in the U.S. and Russian laboratories are not the only sources of copper in the world today.