Ovarian cancer is the one of the most common cancer among women. Ovarian cancer is a cancer that affects the ovaries, located in the abdomen or pelvic area, which is a part of the female reproductive system. In ovarian cancer, the tumor is formed in tissues or internal or external surface of the ovary. Learn more about ovarian cancer symptoms and treatment here.
Ovarian Cancer Symptoms and Treatment:
Types of Ovarian Cancer:
There are three major types of ovarian cancer:
Epithelial carcinoma: Epithelial carcinoma begins in the cells that form the lining of the ovary, called epithelial cells. It is the most common type of ovarian cancer.
Germ cell cancer: Germ cell cancer starts in cells that become eggs and published each month during menstruation.
Stromal cell cancer : stromal cell cancer starts in the tissues that make up the ovaries.
Ovarian Cancer risk factors:
Ovarian cancer is a disease that affects women. Ovarian cancer is less common than other cancers that affect women, including breast and cervical cancer, Major Risk factors for ovarian cancer are:
- Age: Major cases are seen between the ages of 40 to 70 in women.
- Family history: Women with a history of cancer. 3. Personal history of reproductive organ cancer
- Fat rich diet
- Menstrual Cycles: After your first period before age 12 and / or menopause after 50 years.
- The multiple pregnancies reduces the risk of ovarian cancer
Prevention for Ovarian cancer
- Consult gynecologist for a regular yearly pelvic examination
- Eat a diet low in fat
- Do not smoke
- 5. Women with high risk can undergo surgery (removal of one or both ovaries, uterus or fallopian tubes) to reduce the risk. Another option is tubal ligation (ligation of fallopian tubes), but it is unclear if this reduces the risk of patients at high risk.
Symptoms of Ovarian Cancer
Ovarian cancer shows few or no symptoms in the early stages of cancer, with most cases being diagnosed at an advanced stage. The following symptoms are associated with ovarian cancer.
- Abnormal swelling and discomfort in the abdomen
- Loss of appetite, sudden weight loss
- The feeling of fullness even after light meals
- Shortness of breath caused by fluid in the lungs
- Diarrhea or constipation alternating
- Frequent urination
- Indigestion and nausea
- Heavy bleeding during periods and after menopause
Treatment of Ovarian cancer:
There is no uniform accepted screening test for ovarian cancer. Doctors do combination of testing to diagnosing ovarian cancer.
- Pelvic exam: Doctor presses on the stomach, vagina and rectum for abnormal masses.
- Trans vaginal ultrasound: The doctor examines an image produced by sound waves that are created from a tube into the vagina.
- CT / CAT Scan: Doctors use X-ray imaging to examine “slices” of the abdomen.
- Culdocentesis: The doctor takes a sample of fluid from the pelvis with a needle through the vaginal wall and signs of cancer cells.
- Color Doppler: An ultrasound to increase blood flow in arteries.
- CA-125 blood test, high blood levels of the protein CA-125 hormone may indicate cancer. The effectiveness of this test is under study.
- Biopsy: To examine samples of ovarian tissue from the stomach to detect cancer cells. This is the only sure way to diagnose ovarian cancer.
Ovarian cancer has a survival rate 95 % of at 5 years if detected early. But the majority of cases of ovarian cancer are diagnosed after the cancer has spread to other parts of the body.. Ovarian cancer is generally treated by surgery and chemotherapy or radiotherapy. The surgery removes the ovaries and reproductive organs that cancer has spread to.
If one shows any of the signs of symptoms of ovarian cancer, one must seek immediate medical attention. For women who fall in the risk zone for ovarian cancer it is recommended that they get regular checkup’s done.