Most of us are aware about what is diabetes, the causes and effects and also the types. We just know that there are only two types of diabetes the insulin dependent condition – type 1 diabetes and non insulin dependent condition type 2 diabetes. Further, some of us know about gestational diabetes which refers to the diabetic condition in pregnant women. In addition to these common diabetic types, there are few other types of diabetes and one among such rare diabetic condition is monogenic diabetes.
What is monogenic diabetes?
Diabetes generally occurs and develops with multiple genes, where type 1 and type 2 are categorized under this group and referred as polygenic diabetes. In some rare diabetic cases, diabetes result and develop from a single gene mutation, which is referred as monogenic diabetes. People with monogenic diabetic condition accounts for 1% of total diabetic population and it is found only in young people. Monogenic diabetes is caused due to inherited in maximum cases and in few people it is developed spontaneously.
Let us see the causes of monogenic diabetes.
As stated earlier, mutation of single gene is the main cause of monogenic diabetes. In addition, it is caused due to genetic history, inheritance, family history of diabetes, developing diabetes from mother of the child diagnosed with gestational diabetes, and hyperglycemia (high level of blood glucose). Over all, hereditary is the main cause of monogenic diabetes.
Monogenic diabetes can be classified into three types and each type is developed due to different causes and they are permanent neonatal diabetes mellitus, maturity onset diabetes of youngsters and transient neonatal diabetes.
Permanent Neonatal Diabetes is referred as diabetes is newborns are caused as inherited condition from mother.
Transient Neonatal Diabetes is referred as a temporary diabetic condition found in newborns.
Maturity Onset Diabetes is caused without any hereditary, genetic or family history of diabetes and developed suddenly due to gene mutation. As indicated by the name, it is found only in adults. Further, these different types of monogenic diabetes are caused due to gene mutation in different genes.
What are the signs of monogenic diabetes?
The signs and symptoms of monogenic diabetes are similar to the signs of type 2 diabetes. It includes increased thirst, increased urination, loss of appetite, tiredness, sluggish healing of wounds and injuries, high blood pressure and high blood cholesterol.
Further, when anyone is likely to develop insulin dependent monogenic diabetes, the obvious symptom of monogenic diabetes is unexpected weight loss and non insulin dependent monogenic diabetes is unexpected weight gain.
How the condition is diagnosed?
In most of the cases, monogenic diabetes are wrongly diagnosed as type 2 diabetes or type 1 diabetes as indicated by insulin dependency, which happens because of the common symptoms. To diagnose this condition, genetic test should be performed to detect the gene mutations. Genetic testing helps to detect and diagnose the different types of monogenic diabetes. Fortunately, only one in ten thousand diabetic people are diagnosed with monogenic diabetes.
What are the possible treatments for monogenic diabetes?
Similar to any type of diabetes, there is no eventually treatment for curing the diabetic condition. Treatment options are available to suppress the effects of the condition and reduce the glucose levels.
In order to regulate and administer the glucose levels, proper diagnosis should be provided. Treatment for monogenic diabetes is focused on treating the gene mutation. Further, since the condition is accompanied by hyperglycaemia, dietary changes and drugs are prescribed to reduce the blood glucose levels to prevent the risk of developing several complications. In addition, if the patients are diagnosed with insulin dependent monogenic diabetes, insulin injections are provided at prescribed intervals to regulate and control the blood sugar. Proper diagnosis of monogenic diabetes with control and regulation of blood sugar level helps in the long run.