What is Coronary stenosis
Coronary stenosis is a medical condition or state in which a coronary artery becomes tapered or pointed and deposits of materials like fat or cholesterol builds up. A coronary artery is a blood vessel situated in the human heart that is in charge for supplying the heart with blood. If the artery becomes constricted or narrow, it can severely affect the normal functioning of the heart and may eventually become deadly. If the coronary artery becomes wounded somehow, it can lead to coronary stenosis.
Causes of Coronary stenosis
Cholesterol is a solid substance that can affix to the insides of blood vessels and affect their capability to take blood to the heart. Having high levels of cholesterol in the blood can harm the coronary artery, in the same manner as having high blood pressure levels. Smoking can also lead to the situation because the nicotine present in cigarettes can make blood vessels become narrowed and more vulnerable to becoming blocked or choked. Mild cases of coronary stenosis may not have any indications. Once the condition becomes bad and the artery becomes more tapered, it can cause a tight feeling in the chest because it has to struggle against the clogged substances to pass blood through. It can also lead to difficulty in breathing, especially after bodily activity, because the heart doesn’t have the required oxygen supply from blood. If not treated with care, the blood in the artery can clot and totally block it from supplying the heart with blood, resulting in a heart attack or coronary thrombosis.
Symptoms of Coronary stenosis
The symptoms of Coronary stenosis comprise angina pectoris, palpitations, weakness, syncope or fainting, and mysterious inability to take part in aerobic activities. The diagnostic methods used for diagnosing Coronary stenosis usually consist of echocardiogram and cardiac catheterization. In the treatment options surgery to restore the damaged aortic valve is done. After valve replacement the majority patients gets relief from symptoms and are able to go back to normal activities. Sometimes medications are necessary to treat the condition. Gradual wear and tear of a bicuspid valve present since birth, Wear and tear of the aortic valve in the elderly patients and disfigurement of the aortic valve due to rheumatic fever in kid or young adult are the main cause of this condition, but the Bicuspid aortic valve is the most frequent reason of aortic stenosis in patients who under the age of sixty.
Normal aortic valves have three slender leaflets which are also known as cusps but some people are born with aortic valves that have only two such leaflets or with bicuspid valves. Although bicuspid valves generally do not obstruct blood flow when the patients are young, but they do not spread as widely as the normal valves which have three leaflets or cusps. Therefore, blood flow through the bicuspid valves is more disordered, resulting in enhanced wear and tear. With the passage of time, unnecessary wear and tear leads to scarring, calcification or formation of calcium, and reduced mobility of the valve leaflets. As a consequence the bicuspid valves become considerably narrowed, resulting in the symptoms and problem called aortic stenosis.
Treatment of Coronary stenosis
The coronary stenosis can be cured with the use of medications. A doctor may prescribe blood thinning drugs so blood can more effortlessly move through a constricted coronary artery. If a patient has high cholesterol levels, he may take medicines to lower the quantity of cholesterol present in blood, thus making it less probable to cause blockage. Medications given to lower blood pressure can prevent stenosis from getting worse. The condition can also be treated with the help of surgical procedures. As a person becomes older, he is more expected to have coronary stenosis, but the situation may also be due to heredity. It is more frequent in males than in females, but can happen in any of the sexes. Having an inactive lifestyle or being overweight puts an individual at an elevated risk for developing stenosis. It can be avoided by doing daily exercise, eating a diet low in saturated fats, quitting smoking, and getting treatment for high cholesterol or high blood pressure.