What is Coronary artery disease
Coronary artery disease or CAD in short is one of the most frequent forms of heart ailment. Coronary artery disease is the principal cause of death and other complications in the in both men and women. Coronary artery disease happens when the arteries of the heart that provide blood to heart muscle become hardened and tapering. This is due to the buildup of materials like cholesterol and other substances, which are called plaque, on their inner walls of the heart. This buildup is also termed as atherosclerosis. As this formation grows, less blood can run through the arteries and as a result, the heart muscle can’t get the proper supply of blood or oxygen it needs. This can cause chest pain or angina or a heart attack in the patient. Most of the heart attacks take place when a blood clot all of a sudden cuts off the blood supply to the heart, causing permanent damage to the heart. Over time, Coronary artery disease can also weaken the muscles of the heart and adds to heart failure and arrhythmias. Heart failure implies that the heart can’t propel blood well to the rest of the body organs.
Causes of Coronary artery disease
Coronary artery disease develops when an amalgamation of fatty substances, like calcium, and scar tissue or plaque starts gathering in the arteries that convey the heart with blood supply. From these arteries, which are called the coronary arteries, the heart muscle or myocardium gets the supply of the oxygen and other essential nutrients it requires to propel blood. The plaque deposit frequently narrows the artery so that the heart does not get sufficient amount of blood. This slowing down of the blood flow causes pain in the chest. If plaque totally obstructs blood flow, it may be a cause for a heart attack or myocardial infarction or a lethal rhythm disturbance which may cause unexpected cardiac arrest in the patient. Coronary artery disease is caused by a condition known as atherosclerosis, which happens when fatty matter and a material called plaque starts building up on the walls of your heart arteries. This makes them to get tapered. As the coronary arteries contracts, the regular blood flow to the heart can slow down or even stop, shortness of breath, heart attack, and other signs.
Risk Factors for Coronary artery disease
Men above the age of forty have a higher risk of Coronary artery disease than in women. But, as women get older, their threat raises so that it is roughly identical to a man’s risk. Many things enhance your risk for Coronary artery disease; Factors like heredity may increase your risk. You’re more likely to build up the situation if someone in your relations has had it especially if they had it before the age of 50. Your risk also goes up the older you get. The other factors also enhance your risk of Coronary artery disease like Diabetes, , High LDL, Low HDL ,High blood pressure, Menopause, and not doing enough physical activity or exercise leading to Obesity and Smoking. Everyone improve differently with some people maintain a healthy life by altering their diet, avoiding smoking, and taking recommended medications just as the doctor prescribes. Others may call for medical procedures and measures such as angioplasty or surgery. Although every patient is different, early detection of Coronary artery disease usually results in superior effects.
Treatment of Coronary artery disease
Treatment of Coronary artery disease depends on the symptoms and how severe the disease condition is .If a patient have coronary artery disease that does not produces symptoms, he can be treated with either the use of medicine or angioplasty with stenting. Recent researches show that medicine and angioplasty with stenting have equivalent results. Angioplasty with stenting does not help out patient to live longer, but it can diminish angina or other symptoms of Coronary artery disease. Medications used to treat Coronary artery disease consist of ACE inhibitors, Beta-blockers to reduce heart rate, blood pressure, and the oxygen to the heart, Calcium channel blockers to calm down arteries, reducing blood pressure and reducing strain on the heart and Blood thinners lessen the risk of blood clots formation.