There are five stages in colon cancer viz.0 to 4. Colon cancer stages are five in type and there are different symptoms of colon cancer stages. Colon cancer stages also depend on where the cancer is situated at the moment and other such aspects. For example, Stage 0 which is the first of the colon cancer stages is one that is the initial of all the stages. At this stage, the cancer is restricted only to the linings of the colon and has not spread into the other parts of the colon. If the cancer is successfully removed from the lining at this stage, the chances of cancer getting to the last stage is practically eliminated. Learn more about colon cancer stages and symptoms here.
Stages of colon cancer
Colon cancers stage 0: colon cancer affects and originates only in the innermost lining of the colon. Treatment of colon cancer stage 0 usually involves making a local excision to remove the tumor and a small quantity of adjacent tissue, more extensive surgery is used to remove larger colon cancers. This may need a process called an anastomosis to take out the diseased part of the colon and reattach the healthy tissue to keep up the bowel function. Surgery to eliminate all types of cancer is considered curative.
Colon cancers stage I tumors have extend beyond the inner lining of the colon to the middle second and third layers and engage the inside wall of the colon. The cancer has not reached to the outer wall of the colon or outer layer of the colon. Treatment colon cancer is surgery to remove the cancer and the small amount of tissues in the region of the tumor. Additional treatments are not generally needed.
Colon cancers stage II cancers are bigger and expand through the muscular wall of the colon, but the cancer has not reached the lymph nodes. Treatment of colon cancer again is the surgical removal of the tumor and the area neighboring the cancer. A person with this stage of colon cancer may also be given a clinical trial using the adjuvant immunotherapy or chemotherapy. Chemotherapy may also be given as a preventative measure against colon cancer recurrence.
Colon cancers stage III the cancer has reached to the close by lymph nodes, but it has not yet extended to other parts of the body. Surgery followed by adjuvant chemotherapy is the normal treatment for this stage of colon cancer. The FOLFOX schedule is the most universal chemotherapy combination. Doctor may also advise radiation therapy if he thinks that some colon cancer cells might have been left behind after surgery. The patients who aren’t healthy enough for surgical procedure, radiation therapy or chemotherapy may be an option.
Colon cancers stage IV the cancer has stretched from the colon to far-away organs and tissues such as the liver, peritoneum, lungs, or ovaries. In most cases surgery is doubtful to treat these cancers. However, if only a few minute areas of cancer spread or metastases are there in the liver or lungs and they can be totally removed along with the colon cancer, surgery may help you and may even heal you. Chemotherapy is normally given, before or after the surgery. In a few cases, hepatic artery infusion may be used if the cancer has reached the liver. If the metastases cannot be removed surgically, because they are too big or there are too many, chemotherapy may be tested first to contract the tumors for surgery. Chemotherapy would then be again given after the surgery. Other options may include destroying tumors in the liver with cryosurgery, or any other non-surgical methods.