Cardiac Tamponade

What is Cardiac tamponade

Cardiac tamponade which is also termed as pericardial tamponade is an urgent and critical situation in which fluid or blood collects in the pericardium or the pouch in which the heart is enclosed. Cardiac tamponade happen when the pericardial gap fills up with liquid quicker than the pericardial sac can stretch. If the quantity of liquid increases gradually the pericardial sac can inflate to hold a liter or more of fluid proceeding to tamponade happening. If the fluid arises speedily as little as less 100 ml of liquid can cause tamponade. In this situation, blood or fluid collects in the pericardium and stops the ventricles from expanding completely. The surplus pressure from the liquid prevents the heart from operating normally. Lets look at the causes and treatment of cardiac tamponade here.

Cardiac Tamponade

Cardiac tamponade is a life-threatening condition where there is such a large quantity of blood or other liquid within the pericardial sac and around the heart that it hinders with the functioning of the heart. If cardiac tamponade is not treated on time, the consequence is seriously low blood pressure, shock, and even death. The surplus liquid in the pericardial sac acts to constrict and compress the heart and severely confine its function. Cardiac tamponade can be due to too much pericardial fluid, an injury to the heart, or rupture of the heart, hypothyroidism, physical trauma, pericarditis, or iatrogenic trauma.

Symptoms of Cardiac tamponade

There are many signs and symptoms of Cardiac tamponade and these symptoms comprise of high High venous pressure, Quiet heart sounds ,Abdominal swelling, paleness ,Heart palpitations ,Fainting ,Light headedness, Chest pain ,Nervousness ,Rapid breathing ,inhalation difficulty ,restiveness ,Low arterial pressure and Small heart .

Treatment of Cardiac tamponade

Cardiac tamponade is an urgent situation that calls for hospitalization of the patient. The liquid around the heart have to be drained. Pericardiocentesis is a method that uses a needle to take away fluid or blood from the pericardial sac or the tissue that surrounds the heart. A process to cut and take away part of the pericardium called as surgical pericardiectomy or pericardial window may also be used. Fluids are given to preserve regular blood pressure until pericardiocentesis can be performed. Medicine that boosts blood pressure may also facilitate the treatment of cardiac tamponade to sustain the patient’s life till the fluid is removed. The patient may be given oxygen which reduces the pressure on the heart by diminishing tissue requirement for blood flow. The reason of the tamponade must be recognized and treated.

Cardiac tamponade is a medical crisis patients should be observed in an intensive care unit. All patients should be given the Volume expansion with blood, plasma, or isotonic sodium chloride solution, as needed to uphold sufficient intravascular volume. Bed rest with leg elevation may help enhance venous return.Inotropic drugs can be of use because they do not raise systemic vascular resistance at the same time increase cardiac output.

On time diagnosis and handling is the key to survival with tamponade. Rapid evacuation to a hospital is generally the more suitable course of action as this condition can prove to be life threatening. Life of the patient is saved if a timely treatment is provided to him.

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